There are many terms used in our industry. We have compiled a glossary of terms
to aid you in your research.
C D E F
G H I J K
L M N O
P Q R S T
U V W X
Aftermarket - Broad term that applies to any change after
the original purchase, such as adding equipment.
Alternative Fuel - Methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols;
mixtures containing 85% or more by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other
alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas; hydrogen;
coal-derived liquid fuels; non-alcohol fuels (such as biodiesel) derived from biological
material; and electricity. 'P-Series' fuels were added to this list since the original
definition in EPAct.
B100 - 100% (neat) biodiesel.
B20 - A blend of biodiesel fuel with petroleum-based diesel where
20% of the volume is biodiesel.
Biodiesel - A biodegradable transportation fuel for use in diesel
engines that is produced through transesterification of organically derived oils
or fats. Biodiesel is used as a component of diesel fuel. In the future it may be
used as a replacement for diesel.
Bulk Storage - Large quantity of fuel that is stored in tanks
either on or off of the client's property for use in company equipment. An average
size tank is 10,000 gallons and can be either above or below the ground.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) - A product of combustion that
has become an environmental concern in recent years. CO2 does not directly
impair human health, but is a greenhouse gas that traps the Earth's heat and contributes
to the potential for global warming.
Carbon Monoxide (CO) - A colorless, odorless gas produced by the
incomplete combustion of fuels with a limited oxygen supply, as in automobile engines.
According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), CO contributes to the
formation of smog ground-level ozone, which can trigger serious respiratory problems.
California Air Resources Board (CARB) - The state
agency that regulates the air quality in California. CARB standards are often stricter
than federal standards.
Catalyst - A substance whose presence changes the rate of
chemical reaction without itself undergoing permanent change in its composition.
Clean Diesel - An evolving definition of diesel fuel with lower
emission specifications, which strictly limit sulfur content to 0.05 weight %; in
California, aromatics content is further limited to 10 volume % (for large refiners).
Clean Fuel Vehicle (CFV) - Any vehicle certified by EPA as meeting
certain federal emissions standards. The tree categories of federal CFV standards
are: low emission vehicles (LEV), ultra-low emission vehicles (ULEV), and zero emission
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) - Natural gas that has been compressed under high pressures, typically 2000 to 3600
psi, held in a container. The gas expands when used as a fuel.
Dyed Fuel - Fuel that is tinted with a dye to designate off-road
or other federally tax-exempt use.
E10 (Gasohol) - Ethanol mixture that contains 10% ethanol, 90%
E85 - Ethanol/gasoline mixture that contains 85% denatured ethanol
and 15% gasoline, by volume.
E95 - Ethanol/gasoline mixture that contains 95% denatured ethanol
and 5% gasoline, by volume.
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) - The computer-to-computer exchange
of structured information, by agreed message standards, from one computer application
to another by electronic means and with a minimum of human intervention.
Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) - An electronic method used to
remit funds directly from a bank account.
Ethanol - Can be produced chemically from ethylene or biologically
from the fermentation of various sugars from carbohydrates found in agricultural
crops and cellulosic residues from crops or wood.
Federal Communications Excise Tax - Internal Revenue Code (IRC)
§4251 imposes a three (3) percent federal communications excise tax on amounts
paid for certain local and toll telephone services.
Fossil Fuel - A fuel such as coal, oil, and natural gas. Fossil
fuels are the remains of ancient plants and animals.
Fuel Invoice - Detailed sales ticket/receipt showing fuel
purchase. Ideally shows fuel gallons purchased, price/gallon,
total purchase price, date of purchase, equipment number, and odometer reading.
Global Warming - The theoretical escalation of global temperatures
caused by the increase of greenhouse gas emissions in the lower atmosphere.
Green Diesel - Diesel fuel that is taxed by all taxing authorities.
Also called "ultra low sulfur diesel."
Greenhouse Effect - A warming of the Earth and its atmosphere as
a result of the thermal trapping of incoming solar radiation by CO2,
water vapor, methane, nitrogen oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and other gases, both
natural and man-made.
Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) - Maximum weight of a vehicle,
Heavy-Duty Vehicle - Generally, a vehicle that has a GVWR of more
than 26,000lbs. Definitions vary by organization.
Heavy Vehicle Use Tax - A federal tax due annually on all
vehicles with a gross weight of 55,000lbs or greater, traveling on the public highway
system. The tax is filed using form 2290.
Hour Meters - A meter that records hours of use on PTO (power take-off)
units. Not all units have hour meters.
Idle Time - Vehicle engines that idle during equipment use and
generally not associated with fuel used for on-road mileage.
Interstate Common Carrier (ICC) - A vehicle predominantly used
by its owner to offer to transport the general public or the goods of the general
public from place to place for hire.
International Fuel Tax Agreement (IFTA) - A base state fuel tax agreement among jurisdictions to simplify the reporting
of fuel taxes by interstate motor carriers. Upon application, the carrier's base
jurisdiction issues credentials which allow the IFTA licensee to travel in all IFTA
jurisdictions. This license is valid for a calendar year, from January 1 to December
31. As long as an account is in good standing, license and decal renewal is automatic
International Fuel Tax Association, Inc. (IFTA, Inc.) - A national
organization that maintains a base state fuel tax agreement among participating
jurisdictions in order to simplify the reporting of fuel taxes by interstate motor
carriers. Upon application, the carrier's base jurisdiction issues credentials which
allow the IFTA licensee to travel in all IFTA jurisdictions. This license is valid
for a calendar year, from January 1 to December 31. As long as an account is in
good standing, license and decal renewal is automatic .
International Registration Plan (IRP) - A U.S. based plan that
allows for the distribution of registration fees for commercial motor vehicles travelling
inter-jurisdictionally through member states and provinces.
Light-Duty Vehicle - Passenger cars and trucks with a gross vehicle
weight rating of 8,500 or less.
Lubricity - Capacity to reduce friction.
Liquid Underground Storage Tank (LUST) - A tax applied to underground
fuel tanks by federal and state taxing authorities. Applicable taxes will vary among
M100 - 100% (neat) methanol.
M85 - 85% methanol and 15% unleaded gasoline by volume.
Medium-Duty Vehicle - Typically, a vehicle with a GVWR of 8,500
to 14,000 lbs.
Mobile Machinery Exception (MME) - A federal tax term that is intended
to apply to a vehicle chassis that serves solely as a permanent mount for jobsite
machinery. (See also Specially Designed Mobile Machinery)
Natural Gas - A mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons, primarily methane,
occurring naturally in the Earth and used principally as a fuel.
Neat Fuel - Fuel that is free from admixture or dilution with other
Non-Attainment Area - A region, determined by population density
in accordance with the U.S. Census Bureau, which exceeds minimum acceptable NAAQS
for one or more "criteria pollutants" (see Clean Air Act Amendments.) Such areas
are required to seek modifications to their State Implementation Plans, setting
forth a reasonable timetable using EPA-approved means to achieve attainment of NAAQS
for these criteria pollutants by a certain date. Under the CAA, if a non-attainment
area fails to attain NAAQS, EPA may superimpose Federal Implementation Plan with
stricter requirements or impose fines, constructions bans, cutoffs in federal grant
revenues, and so forth, until the area achieves the applicable NAAQS.
Non-Road Vehicle - A vehicle that does not travel streets, roads,
or highways. Such vehicles include construction vehicles, locomotives, forklifts,
tractors, golf carts, and others. (See also Off-Road or Off-Road Equipment)
Odometers - Displays vehicle miles traveled. May or may not continue
to run when PTO units are in use and the vehicle is stationary. Odometers are usually
located on the vehicle's dash and/or on the vehicle wheel hub.
Off-Road - Any non-stationary device, powered by an internal combustion
engine or motor, used primarily off the highways to propel, move, or draw persons
or property, and used in any of the following applications: marine vessels, construction/farm
equipment, locomotives, utility and lawn and garden equipment, off-road motorcycles,
and off-highway vehicles. (See also Non-Road Vehicle or Off-Road Equipment)
Off-Road Equipment - Unlicensed equipment not intended for on-road
use. Examples: construction equipment (backhoes and bulldozers) and agricultural
equipment (tractors). (See also Non-Road Vehicle or Off-Road)
Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) - The original manufacturer
of a vehicle or engine.
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) - Regulated air pollutants, primarily
NO and NO2 but including other substances in minute concentrations. Under
the high pressure and temperature conditions in an engine, nitrogen and oxygen atoms
in the air react to form various NOx. Like hydrocarbons, NOx are precursors to the
formation of smog. They also contribute to the formation of acid rain.
Paraffins - Group of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, including
methane, ethane, propane, and butane and noted by the suffix "-ane".
Particulate Matter (PM) - A generic term for a broad class of chemically
and physically diverse substances that exist as discrete particles (liquid droplets
or solids) over a wide range of sizes. A NAAQS pollutant.
Particulate Trap - Diesel vehicle emission control device that
traps and incinerates diesel particulate emissions after they are exhausted from
the engine but before they are expelled into the atmosphere.
Petroleum Fuel - Gasoline or diesel fuel.
Pounds per Square Inch (psi) - A unit of measure for pressure.
Power of Attorney (POA) - Legal document that gives NECS the authority
to represent clients on federal or state fuel excise tax filings over a specific
Power Take Off (PTO) - State tax term used to
describe auxiliary equipment operated by a vehicle's fuel generally not associated
with fuel used for on-road mileage. Split shaft power take-offs are designed to
allow one engine to power either the vehicle's drive axle or the auxiliary equipment
by switching the mode of operation with the main clutch in the gearbox.
Private Fleet - A fleet of vehicle owned by a non government entity.
Professional Service Agreement - A legal document that authorizes
NECS to provide professional services to a client.
Public Fueling Station - Refers to fueling station that is accessible
to the general public.
Retrofit - To change a vehicle or engine after its original purchase,
usually by adding equipment.
Safe Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for
Users (SAFETEA-LU) - Signed into law on August 10, 2005, the act a
uthorizes $286 billion in spending for the six-year period 2004-09 for numerous
surface transportation programs, such as highways, transit, freight, safety and
Smog - A visible haze caused primarily by particulate matter and
ozone. Ozone is formed by the reaction of hydrocarbons and NOx in the atmosphere.
Specially Designed Mobile Machinery (SDMM) - Federal tax term
used to describe a registered/licensed vehicle that is not considered a highway
vehicle for certain tax purposes because of its permanently attached equipment,
inability to tow or haul a load (other than attached equipment) and specially designed
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) - An EPA criteria pollutant.
U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - A department
of the federal government, established by the Carter Administration in 1977, to
consolidate energy-oriented programs and agencies. The DOE mission includes the
coordination and management of energy conservation, supply, information dissemination,
regulation, research, development and demonstration.
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) - A government
agency whose mission is to ensure a fast, safe, efficient, accessible, and convenient
transportation system that meets the national interests and enhances our quality
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) - A
government agency, established in 1970, responsible for protecting the environment
and public health. EPA seeks to reduce air, water, and land pollution and pollution
from solid waste, radiation, pesticides, and toxic substances. EPA also controls
emissions from motor vehicles, fuels, and fuel additives.
Vehicle Miles Traveled - The miles traveled by motor vehicles over
a specified length of time (e.g. daily, monthly, or yearly) or over a specified
road or transportation corridor.
Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) - Reactive gas released during
combustion or evaporation of fuel and regulated by EPA. VOCs react with NOx in the
presence of sunlight and form ozone.
Voluntary Mobile Source Emission Reduction Program - A program
established by EPA to encourage voluntary emission reduction programs that can be
part of a state implementation program.